News & Events
Adat Perpatih telah dibawa ke Semenanjung Tanah Melayu oleh masyarakat Minang dari Sumatera yang telah mengekalkan adat resam mereka apabila berhijrah pada kurun ke-14. Adat tradisi yang diturunkan secara lisan ini,merangkumi secara menyeluruh pelbagai aspek kehidupan masyarakat termasuk pelantikan Yamtuan dan Undang, hukuman perlanggaran adat, peraturan nikah dan kahwin, pewarisan dan sebagainya. Di Semenanjung Malaysia, Adat Perpatih hanya diamalkan di Negeri Sembilan, Naning di Melaka dan penduduk berketurunan Minangkabau di Kampung Lukut, di Kota Tinggi, Johor. Walau bagaimanapun, Adat Perpatih yang dipraktikkan hari ini telah mengalami penyesuaian dengan amalan dan adat Orang Asli yang merupakan penduduk asal negeri, yang mengamalkan adat tempatan.
En. Mohd Khairil akan membincangkan tentang sistem pentadbiran Adat Perpatih di Negeri Sembilan dan kedudukannya dalam pentadbiran masa kini.
Adat Perpatih was brought to the Malay Peninsula by the Minang society from Sumatera who retained their customs when they migrated in the 14th century. This traditional custom which is passed down orally covers a whole range of aspects of social life including the appointment of Yamtuan and Undang, punishment for breach of custom, marriage and regulations governing marriage, inheritance and other matters. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Adat Perpatih is practised only in Negeri Sembilan, Naning in Malacca and by descendants of the Minangkabau people in Kampung Lukut, Kota Tinggi, Johor. Nevertheless, the Adat Perpatih which is practised here today has adapted with the practice and custom of the indigenous people, who are the original inhabitant of the state, who practice local customs.
En. Mohd Khairil in his talk will discuss the Perpatih Adat administration system in Negeri Sembilan and its place in today’s administration.
Seorang anak jati Negeri Sembilan, En. Mohd Khairil Hisham Mohd Ashaari merupakan Kurator di Galeri Diraja Tuanku Ja’afar, Negeri Sembilan dan penterjemah bebas. Beliau adalah graduan dari Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, dalam bidang Agriculture Science, dan mempunyai minat yang mendalam dalam sejarah Malaysia. Kajian beliau meliputi adat, budaya dan warisan Negeri Sembilan, institusi Diraja Negeri Sembilan, dan sejarah Bugis di Negeri Sembilan. Antara penulisan beliau adalah Polemik Sejarah Negeri Sembilan -Tiada Kesudahan, Bugis di Linggi, Negeri Sembilan (Jurnal KALAM) dan Hubungan Bugis dan Minangkabau (Jurnal KALAM).
A native of Negeri Sembilan, En. Mohd Khairil Hisham Mohd Ashaari is a Curator at the Tuanku Ja’afar Royal Gallery, in Negeri Sembilan and a freelance translator. He is a graduate of Universiti Pertanian Malaysia in Agriculture Science and has a deep interest in Malaysian history. His research covers the customs, culture and heritage of Negeri Sembilan, the Negeri Sembilan Royal Institution, and history of the Bugis in Negeri Sembilan. Amongst his writings are Polemik Sejarah Negeri Sembilan -Tiada Kesudahan, Bugis di Linggi, Negeri Sembilan (Jurnal KALAM) and Hubungan Bugis dan Minangkabau (Jurnal KALAM).
Badan Warisan Malaysia
Members’ Trip to Seri Menanti and Paroi, Negeri Sembilan
Saturday 9 March 2019
Meet/Registration at Istana Lama Seri Menanti, 9.15 a.m.
Seri Menanti, the royal capital of the state of Negeri Sembilan, was established in 1773 as a loose confederation of luak (districts), by immigrants coming over from Sumatra (mainly Minangkabau). Of the original 9 districts (Sungei Ujong, Rembau, Jelebu, Jelai, Naning, Klang, Segamat and Ulu Pahang), hence its name, Negeri Sembilan, only the former five districts remain as part of the State today.
This visit is limited to a maximum of 40 pax, and will include a guided tour of the restoration of the Istana Lama as well as a talk and visit to some traditional houses in the area. After lunch, we will proceed to see the former Salinger House which has been relocated to a private estate near Seremban.
Registration fee for the trip is RM60/pax for members and RM85/pax for non-members. The fee is inclusive of lunch and some light refreshments.
The detailed programme will be provided to those who register for the trip.
Download registration form HERE and submit it to firstname.lastname@example.org
Multidisciplinary Approach in Heritage Conservation, Case Study: Langkawi UNESCO Global Geopark By UKM Governance and Education for Heritage Conservation Research Group
ABOUT THE SHARING SESSION
This sharing session will present the work carried out by UKM’s Governance and Education for Heritage Conservation Research Group on Langkawi Geopark (GAMAT). Langkawi Island, which was the first UNESCO Global Geopark in Malaysia as well as in Southeast Asia, can be a model for integrated heritage conservation and sustainable development. As a nature-based tourism destination, Langkawi Geopark has a huge responsibility to conserve its natural heritage (both geological and biological) as well as its cultural heritage. From their respective perspectives and specialisations, the GAMAT team will offers insights into some of the issues and challenges pertaining to Langkawi Geopark as a model for integrated heritage conservation and sustainable development. With the tagline ‘making the past present for the future’, this team sought to highlight the significance of heritage conservation which carries the spirit of Semangat Kawi by underlying the symbiotic relationship between heritage (of the past), current development (of the present) and the needs of the next generations (for the future).
ABOUT THE SPEAKERS
The GAMAT team comprises academics and researchers from different academic disciplines and includes Prof. Dr. Rahimah Abdul Aziz, Datin Paduka Dr. Halimaton Saadiah Hashim, Prof. Dr. Ong Puay Liu, Associate Professor Dr. Sarah Aziz, Associate Professor Dr. Geraldine K.L. Chan, Dr. Tanot Unjah, Dr. Lee Jing, Dr. Sharina Abdul Halim
LET’S TALK HERITAGE: A case for consensus-building and conflict-resolution for heritage place management
The recent demolition of a traditional Malay house in Kampung Tanjung Kelab Pantai, Terengganu, which was reported as standing in the way of the RM4.5 billion Kuala Terengganu City Centre project, has raised yet again concerns amongst many heritage professionals over the status of protection of the nation’s heritage.
In this past year, we have been privy to other controversies involving the loss of cultural heritage places – some through demolition such as that of Ampang Park Shopping Complex and the row of houses, commonly known as “Serani Row” in KL; others through development or major changes in the “look” of the place, as in the painting of the staircase leading up to the Batu Caves Temple complex.
So how do we really understand what is heritage?
The ways in which heritage is often framed today is through such regimes as the World Heritage Convention, and our own National Heritage Act 2005. In many countries, Malaysia included, heritage processes are legalistic, using adversarial court systems to determine the heritage significance of a place and to determine what are acceptable and appropriate actions to safeguard heritage.
Conflict arises when there is disagreement between involved parties who are responding to real or perceived threats to their interests, values, identities or rights; fears that one’s heritage is disrespected create highly charged emotions.
This lack of agreement will impede or prevent mutual understanding while ignoring the conflict in the hope it will dissipate over time is also ineffective. Conflicts present major barriers to achieving good heritage outcomes for all parties.
Fundamentally, heritage is a complex concept, engaging feelings and identities of the many different peoples and groups which make up our society. It connects what is culturally important to us – the individual, the family, any specific cultural group, up to the larger social framework we refer to as nation. There can be no one singular view of what is heritage; rather there are multiple perspectives reflecting the multiple values of multiple stakeholders.
These stakeholders each have distinct roles and different interests. They are also likely to have very different concepts of what comprises heritage. This in turn oftentimes results in conflict or differences of opinion.
So how does one determine the heritage significance of a place, and the appropriate action to be taken? Should a place be protected under law, or changes (including demolition), be allowed? How do we seek co-existence of these multiple values?
The heritage professional is one whose expertise places them in a position to present an independent, objective view, advocating for a particular position. But there are occasions when this position is challenged by another “expert” view, resulting in disagreement on the “facts” and adding to an already confused situation.
Those of us working to promote and protect our national heritage should be advocating for a consensus-building methodology, focusing on the core needs and concerns of all parties, centered on fundamental values and identities, and ultimately negotiating for an outcome which adjudicates between economic, social, environmental and political perspectives.
Almost all the time, conflict arises because heritage places are located within contested terrain – e.g. old two-storey shophouses in the city centre where the local development plans allow for much higher plot ratios, a bungalow on a relatively large piece of land which has been identified for high-rise redevelopment, etc. etc.
We have to break this head to head pitting of economic and utilitarian benefits against that of heritage conservation. We have to create a framework based on recognizing difference and one which helps build respect for all values and connections and to seek consensus.
Had there been any attempts for conflict-resolution, which may have prevented, or at the very least mitigated against, the very distressing and wasteful outcome of the demolition of this property in Kuala Terengganu?
We do not have any direct knowledge of the context which led to the traditional timber house being knocked down. We do know from having seen a video of the demolition that in a matter of minutes, all vestiges of a traditional village lifestyle was cancelled out.
Was it that the owner refused to move because he wanted more compensation, with the reported value of RM20,000 not a fitting sum while RM2 million would have made up for the loss of his family’s history and legacy? Was it that the officially (government) recognized owner of the land, felt vindicated because it was their legal right to get vacant possession of the land? The conflict over this contested site is reported to have been going on for at least a year, if not two. Everyone else in the kampong vacated their houses. Was this the last bastion, holding out and fighting for heritage rights?
Following our inaugural Lensa Warisan lecture & discussion of 14 November, Badan Warisan is planning to hold a forum early next year to discuss issues relating to the management of heritage sites and the principles we should be using to guide our heritage practices. More details later.
On a warm mid-October afternoon in Kuala Lumpur, the Arts Hall of WowKL! Restaurant at the iconic MaTiC along busy Jalan Ampang bustled with activity. Distinct Malay background music accompanied the cordial chatter of guests and hosts alike, all orchestrally spilling into MaTiC’s patio where a temporary exhibition of celebrated heritage and cultural items was set up to mark the occasion.
And what occasion was that? The proclamation ceremony for the 5th edition of Malaysia’s National Heritage Register 2018.
Federal Minister and Deputy Minister for Tourism, Arts and Culture, YB Datuk Mohamaddin Ketapi and YB Tuan Muhammad Bakhtiar Wan Chik, accompanied by Secretary General YBhg Datuk Rashidi Hasbullah and other senior Ministry officials, joined hosts, Commissioner of Heritage YBhg Dato’ Dr. Zainah Ibrahim and her team at the Jabatan Warisan Negara (JWN), to proclaim the addition of 255 entries to the National Heritage Register (Register).
And, as it turned out, MaTiC was not only the event venue but also one of the 22 new buildings added to the Register.
National Heritage Designation
A practice founded in the National Heritage Act 2005 (NHA) and which began in 2007 with an inaugural 50 entries (including 16 classified as tangible architectural heritage) has over the years amassed hundred of entries under several distinct categories including ones covering heritage building or monuments, archaeological sites, natural sites, various tangible and intangible objects, and even, living persons, which was established for the 2012 edition.
The NHA, which became effective on 1 March 2006, was promulgated “… to provide for the conservation and preservation of National Heritage, natural heritage, tangible and intangible cultural heritage, underwater cultural heritage, treasure trove and for related matters”.
The NHA also establishes a 12-person National Heritage Council (NHC) and provides for the appointment of a Commissioner of Heritage empowered “to determine the designation of sites, registration of objects and underwater cultural heritage”, “to establish and maintain the Register and to determine and specify the categories of heritage to be listed in the Register”, and “to promote and regulate that best standards and practices are applied in the conservation and preservation of heritage” among other functions. The JWN supports the Commissioner in carrying out her functions.
Recognition as a National Heritage, and consequently protection for the same, is afforded through a process of gazettal. The Minister for heritage may gazette any heritage site, heritage object, underwater cultural heritage or living person as National Heritage based on a list of 9 criteria stated in s. 67(2) of the NHA. These criteria include “historical importance, association with or relationship to Malaysian history”, “the rarity or uniqueness” of the building, monument, site or object, and “any other matter which is relevant to the determination of cultural heritage significance”.
So, What’s on the National Heritage Register?
Many interesting items (and persons). Like what, you ask?
Well, among the now 72 national heritage buildings and monuments around the country, the earlier and better known entries include Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad, Istana Negara and Tugu Negara in Kuala Lumpur; also the Stadhuys and the St. Paul’s Church in Melaka; as well as a string of heritage buildings in Kuala Kangsar, Taiping and Teluk Intan in Perak.
In the recent 2018 proclamation alone, 22 buildings were declared as National Heritage:
1. Masjid Melayu Leboh Aceh, Pulau Pinang
2. Masjid Kapitan Keling, Pulau Pinang
3. Fort Cornwallis, Pulau Pinang
4. Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi, Pulau Pinang
5. Penang High Court Building, Pulau Pinang
6. Penang Free School, Pulau Pinang
7. The Telegraph Building, Taiping, Perak
8. Darul Ridzuan Museum, Perak
9. Bangunan Lama Pusat Pelancongan Malaysia (MaTic) and Dewan Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kuala Lumpur
10. The Old Building of Dewan Bahasa and Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur
11. The Sulaiman Building, Kuala Lumpur
12. Majestic Hotel, Kuala Lumpur
13. Istana Budaya, Kuala Lumpur
14. National Library of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur
15. Bangunan Bank Kerapu (World War II Memorial), Kelantan
16. The State Museum, Kelantan
17. Maziah Palace, Terengganu
18. The Kuala Terengganu Grand Mosque / Abidin Mosque, Terengganu
19. Bangunan Sekolah Menengah King George V (Old Block), Negeri Sembilan
20. Pengulu Md. Nattar’s House, Melaka
21. Fort Malawati, Selangor
22. Fort Kuala Kedah, Kedah
On the Register now too are Candi Bukit Batu Pahat (Tapak 8) and Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Tapak 23), both found in Bujang Valley, Kedah, making up the list of 14 archaeology heritage sites in all.
The tally of natural heritage sites remained at 7, inclusive of such gems as Taman Diraja Belum in Grik, Perak, the Mulu Caves National Park in Sarawak, as well as Taman Negara Kinabalu in Sabah.
Please visit the Jabatan Warisan Negara website for the full National Heritage Register.
How should we designate National Heritage?
While we were pleasantly surprised to see the Malay-Chinese-European style architectured Penghulu Md. Nattar’s House in Melaka – the first traditional house added to the Register – we remain concerned by the lack of public awareness to the guiding principles adopted by JWN which facilitate their evaluation of the 9 criteria for National Heritage listing, especially for the “cultural heritage significance” criterion at the national level.
We believe that such awareness is of great importance to help guide the understanding, and consequently, appreciation by members of the public as to the significance of our heritage, and hopefully lead to a greater resolve in calling for the protection, conservation and preservation of the same. To this end, our upcoming Lensa Warisan series lecture on 14 November 2018 will feature our Vice-President Ar. Dr. Helena Aman Hashim on the topic of Understanding the Criteria for Listing of Buildings as Warisan Kebangsaan. Do join us if you can, details are found here.
Council Member of Badan Warisan Malaysia